Concrete Pictorial Abstract

Concrete, pictorial, abstract (CPA) is a highly effective approach to teaching that develops a deep and sustainable understanding of maths. Developed by American psychologist, Jerome Bruner, the CPA approach is the mainstay of maths teaching in Singapore.

Need To Know

  • Based on research by psychologist Jerome Bruner
  • A gradual and systematic approach which builds on a child’s existing understanding
  • Effective and more effective way of teaching abstract concepts such as fractions
  • Provides children with a conceptual understanding of maths

Watch The Film

Dr. Yeap Ban Har explains the principles of the Concrete Pictorial Abstract approach to Maths mastery used in Singapore Maths textbooks

Background To Concrete, Pictorial and Abstract (CPA)

Children and adults can find maths difficult because it is abstract. The CPA approach helps children learn new ideas and build on their existing knowledge by introducing abstract concepts in a more familiar and tangible way. The approach is so established in Singapore maths teaching, that the Ministry of Education will not approve any teaching materials which do not use the CPA approach.


Concrete is the “doing” stage, using concrete objects to model problems. Instead of the traditional method of maths teaching, where a teacher demonstrates how to solve a problem, the CPA approach brings concepts to life by allowing children to experience and handle physical objects themselves. Every new abstract concept is learned first with a “concrete” or physical experience.

For example, if a problem is about adding up four baskets of fruit , the children might first handle actual fruit before progressing to handling counters or cubes which are used to represent the fruit.

Concrete Method


Pictorial is the “seeing” stage, using representations of the objects to model problems. This stage encourages children to make a mental connection between the physical object and abstract levels of understanding by drawing or looking at pictures, circles, diagrams or models which represent the objects in the problem.

Building or drawing a model makes it easier for children to grasp concepts they traditionally find more difficult, such as fractions, as it helps them visualise the problem and make it more accessible.

CPA Approach


Abstract is the “symbolic” stage, where children are able to use abstract symbols to model problems (Hauser).

Only once a child has demonstrated that they have a solid understanding of the “concrete” and “pictorial” representations of the problem, can the teacher introduce the more “abstract” concept, such as mathematical symbols. Children are introduced to the concept at a symbolic level, using only numbers, notation, and mathematical symbols, for example +, –, x, / to indicate addition, multiplication, or division.

Although we’ve presented CPA as three distinct stages, a skilled teacher will go back and forth between each representation to reinforce concepts.

Our approach encourages teachers to vary the apparatus the children use in class, for example, one day they might use counters, another day they might use a ten frame [pictured]. Likewise, children are encouraged to represent the day’s maths problem in a variety of ways, for example, drawing an array, a number bond diagram or a bar model [pictured]. By systematically varying the apparatus and methods they use to solve a problem, we help children to make quicker mental connections between the concrete, pictorial and abstract phases.

When teaching young children their numbers, counters and multi-link cubes are more commonly used in the UK. But concrete apparatus is often put away by the time children reach KS2 because teachers consider their use too childish or distracting. By removing concrete materials from the children, they are being exposed to abstract concepts too early and are missing out on the opportunity to build the conceptual mathematical understanding which they need to take them through their education.

However, it should never be a case of concrete ‘good’, abstract ‘bad’. It is important to recognise that the CPA model is a progression. By the end of KS1, children need to be able to go beyond the use of concrete equipment to access learning using either pictorial representations or abstract understanding. What is important, therefore, is that all learners, however young, can see the connections between each representation.